Флаг Италии: происхождение, значение и история национального символа страны

Статья опубликована в подразделе Символы (который является частью раздела Культура и искусство).

Национальный флаг италииНациональный флаг – важнейший элемент государственности. По нему можно прослеживать историю страны. Конечно, не стал исключением и флаг Италии. Еще двести лет назад такого государства вообще не существовало.

На Апеннинском полуострове было множество разрозненных политико-экономических образований, как то: города-республики, небольшие королевства и провинции, входящие в состав других государств. Естественно, все они имели свои государственные символы, как правило, принадлежащие правящим на этих территориях династиям.

Современный флаг Италии официально принят только 19 января 1946 года. Значение цветов: вертикальные полосы окрашены в три колора, где символ веры – это зеленый цвет, надежды – белый и любви – красный. Пропорции полотнища составляют 2:3.

Государственный флаг италииИстория современного флага Италии

Колористика флага была разработана в 1796 году при Наполеоне с оглядкой на флаг Франции. Кто придумал государственный флаг Италии до сих пор точно не известно: по одной из версий такое сочетание цветов полотнища пришло от студентов Болонского университета. А 9 ноября 1796 года первая когорта Ломбардского легиона, состоявшего из итальянских патриотов и якобинцев, на площади Дуомо в Милане перед тем, как отправиться под Арколе, получила зелено-бело-красный триколор.

Солдаты Ломбардского легиона впоследствии стали основой национальной гвардии и носили форму зеленого цвета с красно-белыми элементами, т.е. цветами государственного флага.

Народные песни ИталииНа нашем сайте вы можете прочитать историю возникновения итальянской народной песни и увидеть тексты самых популярных песен на итальянском и русском языке.

История возникновения и значение итальянских фамилий в этой статье. Вы узнаете о самых забавных, самых глупых значениях фамилий, а также о тех, которыми не гордятся итальянцы.

Герб Италии и его значение: http://penisola.org/kultura/simboli/znachenie-gerba-italii.html. История создания герба.

Однако, сначала полосы на итальянском флаге были горизонтальными. И только через два года в 1798 году он приобрел привычный вид – триколор с вертикальными полосами. Он был утвержден национальным стягом Цизальпинской республики, которая с 1802 года была переименована в Итальянскую республику. С 1805 Италия была провозглашена королевством, и на флаге появился золотой наполеоновский орел.

Такой флаг использовался в военных целях. Государственный флаг этого образца был в ходу вплоть до падения Наполеона и возродился только ко второй половине XIX века, что означает символ объединения Италии. Это событие было связано с именем Гарибальди.

Фото флага Италии Савойской династии королейМежду этими двумя вехами итальянской истории на полотнище флага успел побывать герб савойской династии итальянских королей (колчан со стрелами в окружении лаврового венца и военных трофеев).

А с 1925 по 1946 год на государственном флаге изображалась королевская корона. Она была убрана после того, как в 1946 году Италия была провозглашена республикой.

Какой был флаг у фашистской ИталииФлаг Италии периода правления Муссолини

В период правления Бенито Муссолини символом правящей партии был привычный триколор, но с фасциями посредине белой полосы.

Фасции (фашио) в эпоху римский республики атрибут власти магистрата. Представляют собой перевязанные красным шнуром или кожаным ремнем вязовые или березовые прутики в форме цилиндра. Они символизируют право городского магистрата в пределах стен города добиваться выполнения своих приказов с применением силы.

В сельской местности в фасции вставлялся топор или секира, как подтверждение права магистрата на вынесение смертных приговоров (в городах такое право принадлежало народу). Фасции за магистратом носили ликторы (исполнители решений магистрата).

Со временем ликторские фасции исторически стали восприниматься как символ сохранения государственной власти. Бенито Муссолини, пропагандируя национальное возрождение Италии, безусловно, не мог пройти мимо этого древнеримского символа государственности. Само название «фашизм» – производное от слова «фасции» («фашио»).

Флаг Ирландии и италииНациональный флаг Италии и флаги других стран

Интересно, что флаги Италии и Ирландии очень похожи. Пропорции ирландского флага 1:2. Он состоит и трех вертикальных полос изумрудного, белого и оранжевого цветов. Естественно, у этих цветов есть тоже свое символическое значение, однако, сайт “Италия для нашего человека” присвоил ему свою трактовку: цвет зеленой травы, белая кожа ирландки и ее рыжие волосы. Согласитесь, очень похоже на правду.Флаг Италии и Ирландии

Таким образом, чтобы не путать флаги этих двух государств нужно запомнить: итальянский флаг шире и последняя полоса у него красного цвета.

А вот государственные флаги Италии и России схожи только пропорциями 2:3 и присутствием двух одинаковых цветов – белого и красного.

С 6.07.2005 года итальянский парламент принял закон, согласно которому за кощунственные действия, совершенные над государственным флагом предусматривается штраф от 1 тысячи до 1,5 тысяч евро.

Вот уже двести лет, как итальянский флаг выглядит почти без изменений, практически не меняя своего внешнего вида, что говорит о стабильном и поступательном развитии Италии. Так пожелаем же ей – так держать!

Флаг Италии галерея фото, картинки

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