История появления и значение герба Италии

Статья опубликована в подразделе Символы (который является частью раздела Культура и искусство).

Государственный герб ИталииОдним из основных символов любого государства, наряду с флагом и гимном, является официальный герб. Не является исключением и такое европейское государство, как Итальянская республика. По поводу присвоения статуса “официальный” у итальянцев свой подход – правительство никогда не торопится с такими важными решениями, поэтому герб страны удостоился этой чести лишь в нашем столетии. Об этапах становления государственной символики и истории ее возникновения читайте в нашей статье.

Краткое описание герба Республики Италия

Существующий нынче герб Италии стал ее официальным символом в середине прошлого столетия – пятого мая 1948 года. Главная эмблема «страны сапог и макарон» состоит из белой пятиконечной звезды (по краям красного цвета), наложенную в середину зубчатого колеса, имеющего пять спиц, стоящее, в свою очередь, между ветвями двух деревьев: слева расположена ветвь оливы, а справа – ветвь дуба. Между собой ветви зеленого цвета соединены красной ленточкой, на которой написано белыми заглавными буквами «REPVBBLICA ITALIANA» (“Итальянская республика” в переводе с итальянского). Главным элементом служит именно звезда, которая известна под названием Stellone d’Italia.

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Современный герб Италии история создания

Итальянская республика получила свой герб весной 1948 года. А сам процесс создания этого государственного символа шел практически два года. Было объявлено сразу два конкурса. Их участниками стали примерно пятьсот человек. Это были как настоящие профессиональные живописцы, так и новички и любители. Всего в конкурсную программу попало восемьсот эскизов.

Само решение создать герб Итальянской республики было озвучено осенью 1946 года, когда Правительством Альчиде де Гаспери была учреждена специальная комиссия, которая с огромным энтузиазмом взялась за работу. Возглавил комиссию Иваное Бономи. Комиссия приняла постановление об объявлении открытого конкурса на территории всей страны с данными условиями: герб должен был в обязательном порядке включать в себя пятиконечную звезду, символику земель, а также муниципалитетов. Под строжайшим запретом было включение в герб символов различных политических партий. Было обещано, что авторы самых блестящих конкурсных работ получат по десять тысяч лир, что на конец века было бы эквивалентно сумме в пятьсот тысяч лир.

На первый конкурс поступило 637 рисунков (черно-белого цвета) от 341 кандидата. Пять лучших авторов получили новое задание. Они должны были создать новые эскизы по более точной тематике, которая была выдвинута Комиссией. Так, предлагалось в центральной части герба разместить крепостную стену с башнями, которая должна была быть выполнена в форме короны, обрамленной гирляндами из ветвей, привычных для итальянской местности. Вверху нужно было поместить Звезду Италии, а в нижней части – морское побережье и слова: Свобода и Единство.

На сей раз победил Паоло Паскетто, который дополнительно был вознагражден премией в размере пятьдесят тысяч лир.

Также ему поручили сделать итоговый вариант, который затем должен был быть утвержден Комиссией, а потом и Правительством страны. Также по плану Комиссия должна была поместить эту работу на Виа Маргутта в выставочном центре, наряду с эскизами остальных финалистов. Все это происходило в феврале 1947 года. Тогда казалось, что решение уже принято окончательно, но на самом деле это было далеко не так.

Как выяснилось, далеко не все одобрили данный герб Италии. Мнения были разные, поэтому было решено назначить обновленную Комиссию, объявившую о повторном конкурсе. Так получилось, что архив умалчивает о подробностях этого конкурса. Известно лишь, что главной его идеей было найти такой символ, на котором была бы отражена идея труда.

Но так вышло, что конкурс опять выиграл Паоло Паскетто. Впоследствии Комиссия подкорректировала его эскизы. Итоговый вариант попал в Конституционную Ассамблею, где был подвергнут небольшой критике, но все же утвержден 31 января 1948 года.

До мая 1948 года его немного подработали. Наконец пятого мая Энрико де Никола, который был на тот момент Президентом страны, подписал указ № 535. Этот законодательный акт подтвердил присвоение Италии новейшего государственного символа.

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Герб Италии значение и описание

Весь герб Италии можно разделить на три основополагающие составные части:
•Звезда;
•Зубчатое колесо;
•Ветви дуба и оливы.

Каждая из частей наделена определенным смыслом (значением).

Гимн ИталииНа нашем сайте вы найдете интересные факты про гимн Италии и сможете его прослушать.

Описание национальной валюты Италии и историю ее становления найдете в этой статье.

Официальный сайт посольства Италии в Москве и статья об этой государственной службе здесь:http://penisola.org/turista/documenti/posol-stvo-italii-v-moskve.html.

Звезда в Италии еще с очень древних времен считается иконографическим изображением страны. Она на протяжении всей истории ассоциировалась с образом данного государства, которое, как принято считать, звезда озаряет лучистым сиянием. Таковой она представлялась в иконографии эпохи Рисорджименто, и именно в таком виде она просуществовала вплоть до 1890 года на общем гербе объединенного Королевства. После, в период Реконструкции, звезда являлась украшением республиканского знака почета под названием «Звезда итальянской солидарности».  На данный момент также присутствует звезда на гербе Италии, что означает принадлежность к вооруженным силам страны.

Следующий значимый элемент герба Италии, который окружает звезду,- это зубчатое колесо из стали. Его можно назвать символом труда. Зубчатое колесо является отражением самой первой статьи Конституционного закона державы, в которой написано, что Италия является демократической республикой, основанной на труде.

Также на гербе присутствуют ветви деревьев, которую окаймляют стальное колесо с зубцами. Оливковая ветвь говорит о том, что итальянцы – это миролюбивый народ. Также ветвь оливы символизирует стремление к внутригосударственному согласию и интернациональному единению за пределами Итальянской республики. Ветвь дуба подчеркивает достоинство и силу итальянской нации. Помимо этого, ветви обоих деревьев являются самыми типичными представителями растительности, имеющейся на территории страны.

Таким образом, герб, автором которого был Паоло Паскетто – профессор института Изобразительных искусств, расположенного в Риме, дошел до наших дней без каких-либо изменений.

Герб Италии фото, картинка:

К записи "История появления и значение герба Италии" оставлено 129 коммент.

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